Thursday, March 17, 2011

Race, Eating Disorders, and Body Ideals

It was between this and vuvuzelas to find South Africa images that didn't
add to the black-woman objectification pile-on. So!
  
Black South African models are slimmer than their white counterparts—a significant reversal from the U.S., where black models are heavier than white ones.

The initial research prompt was not about models, though, but about eating disorders. Remember when we all thought that eating disorders were only a white-girl thing? The study doesn't address eating disorders in South Africa, but other reports say that EDs among black South African women are on the rise. This echoes recent findings that Latina teens have a higher rate of bulimia than other teen groups in the U.S., as Latina American teens and South African women are groups in the midst of a historic shift in their respective countries.

It's a step in the right direction that women of color, both in the States and abroad, are finally being recognized as equal-opportunity sufferers of eating disorders; being seen as exempt from EDs may prevent sufferers from seeking care, and can also prevent doctors from asking the right sort of questions that would lead to a proper diagnosis and treatment.

But it's somewhat disheartening to see the science community so eager to boil down the increase in EDs among women of color to shifting body ideals. That's a part of it, sure—Latina media stars aren't as thin as white starlets, but they're still thinner than the average woman, and even at their curviest they represent an impossible ideal. (News flash: Not all Cuban women roll out of bed looking like Eva Mendes.) But let's look at other pressures that are particular to nonwhite women and girls in South Africa and the U.S.: striking a balance between assimilating to be accepted by the larger world and maintaining a distinct cultural identity; absorbing the hopes and dreams that were denied to their mothers by apartheid or economics; a greater likelihood of facing discrimination, both overt and covert; and, in the case of Latina teens, a greater likelihood of being an undocumented resident and knowing that your parents—or you—could be exported to a homeland, perhaps one you have no memory of. "That's a very real anxiety that not many kids have to deal with," said Rosie Molinary, author of Hijas Americanas: Beauty, Body Image, and Growing Up Latina, when I talked with her for our interview. "They came here at 2 years old, and somebody might be like, 'Send them back to El Salvador,' and it's like, 'Great, well, I don't know Spanish.' "

The point is: It's not that suddenly women of color are now all up in arms about becoming really skinny; it's that they are facing a bundle of unprecedented anxieties, and it's seeking a measure of control and relief that's largely the root of eating disorders for all women. The pressure to be thin might pull the trigger, but if we rely solely on that measure we're going to continue having blinders on as to who is really at risk.

Which brings us back to the thinness of black South African models. Model Carol Makhathini reports that the dichotomy exists because black models are automatically assumed to be larger than white models, increasing the thin imperative. It makes sense on one level, but certainly black women are assumed to be larger than white women in the States, and it doesn't play out that way in thinness-obsessed America. Another possibility is that South African women are playing out history on their very bodies. Apartheid ended in 1993, but given the preponderance of racism in the U.S. nearly 150 years after the Emancipation Proclamation, it's not surprising that racial tensions and other forms of racial inequality run high in South Africa. Combine that with it being the world's leader in raping women, and suddenly black South African women's bodies can be seen not as their own, but as symbols—symbols of legacies of the past, hopes for the future, of a race-gender war that will take generations to resolve. It's unclear whether black South African models suffer from eating disorders in greater numbers than their white colleagues--but research indicates that black South African women display greater eating disorder pathology than other ethnic groups, and at comparable rates to white women. But eating disordered or not, black models' bodies hold more potential for projection in a nation where race is so distinctly loaded. It's no wonder that their bodies are more molded, more sculpted--and are literally less--than those of their white peers.

14 comments:

  1. Whoa...this is interesting and I had never thought of the problem outside the borders of the USA. I've been reading an excellent book on ED by Susan Bordo, Unbearable Weight.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Oh wow--I hadn't heard of that book and in looking it up it's now on my must-read list! Thank you!

    I'm really interested in what role cultural forces that go beyond things that have a clear link to women's bodies have on our bodies and self-image. As feminists we talk a lot about the reflexive relationship between bodies and, say, advertising and art and the whole idea of the gaze. But I'm so interested in what some of the feminist fashion bloggers have been writing about in regards to fashion and capitalism and want to find out more about how capitalism (or other economic systems) play into our bodies and our perceptions of beauty.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Each step of the replica watches way is arguably as important as the other steps. All handbags will have reached this step sometime in its fabrication process. When a designer seems to have been touched by a higher being to create a design that is a little slice of louis vuitton replica heaven, the designer gains a better reputation as a handbag designer and brings you more and more of the designs you like. Often, the popularity of a designer will increase the price of the handbags that designer design. Then along comes those designer inspired handbags.I have heard it said that imitation is the ultimate form of a compliment. Perhaps there is truth in this saying. When a designer's handbags are so popular that they require a replica, imitation, inspired, or fake designers to create something similar, that is the prada belts biggest achievement. These designers change the handbag in a slight way sometimes as easy as changing the initials used on the handbag. For example, Louis Vuitton always has a signature LV on his handbags, some designer inspired handbags may have LW. Coach is another good example. All Coach handbags have a double C design on the fabric, designer inspired handbags may have a CG instead of the double C.These handbags never claim to be authentic. To do so is illegal and a travesty to you and the original designer. However, replicas and inspired handbags meet all requirements for staying legal. They offer you design, fashion, and style at an affordable rate. Most people can not easily afford $10000 USD for that exquisite handbag. A designer inspired handbag may be able to get you the same look and feel of that handbag for around $100 USD. Maybe you are wondering why anyone would want a designer handbag if they can get a lookalike for so cheap. Well, the keyword is "cheap". The designer handbags offer a higher quality in breitling replica material and fabrication. A designer inspired handbag may look beautiful and sexy, but usually the quality is significantly lower than the original. The inspired handbag may have a weaker thread or weaker hems, or a replica handbag could have a low quality of tag heuer replica closures and clasps that will rust with time; you should always check those straps or handle for loose strings. Fraying thread is definitely the enemy of those designer inspired handbags.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Quest Nike Free GYM Obama Series cigars

    because Nike Air Force 1 the company recently launched 'Obama Series cigars (Obama

    cigars) 'once available, will be subject Air Force Womens Nike Free 3.0 V2 Heels to a favorable Cigar Aficionado.' Now the company received a lot of orders from the US market every day, in Washington, New York, California, Florida and Las Vegas, this cigar currently Nike Shox has been out of stock, 'operations director Miguel Company

    Ramirez said, 'This cigar because 'Obama' and selling, we hope to take advantage of this situation.' Since Obama became America's first black president after the company has sold 20,000 in the US market ' Obama 'although Obama himself quit smoking cigars at his wife, Michelle Free Trainer 3.0 Obama's persuasion, and promised not to smoke in the White House, but he acknowledged, had experienced after 20 years of age smoke, quitting smoking is indeed difficult. It seems, Nike Free TR Fit Granada company lost no time to seize this opportunity. The company did not Nike Air Force 1 Womens own the plant, they rented Segovia province Esteli in northern Nicaragua cigar factory to produce Obama Series cigars. This cigar use locally produced tobacco and Cuban tobacco, hand-rolled, the wrapper wrapped in silver hoops, emblazoned with 'Obama

    44 ', in honor of the 44th US president.' Obama is not only America's first African-American president, but also the symbol of hope and tolerance, 'Miguel

    Ramirez said, 'which has never won the presidential election so thoroughly in this country because of Obama and change, we feel obliged to pay tribute to this extraordinary figure.'

    Obama Series cigars is introducing four models, respectively Toro (6.5

    incumbent President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua as the country's 'Sandinista National Liberation Front,' an important leader, who in the 1980s occurred in the civil war with US-backed anti-government guerrillas, resulting in up to 50,000 people were killed. He was born Air Max 2012 Heels in the United States and former Republican President George W Bush relationship is not harmonious, but he said he hoped bilateral ties under the new government can be improved. 'When it comes to political issues, we prefer Sneaker Online to remain objective,' Miguel

    Ramirez said, 'because our customers by many different political groups constituted. We respect all political parties, whether they intend to draw our production of 'Obama' cigars is their personal freedom. I hope that our products can improve international relations , and Nicaragua and the United States diplomacy to contribute. '

    'There is no doubt that, given the current good sales performance, our cigar production will certainly have to increase in order to meet customer needs for the product.' Miguel

    Ramirez added. It seems, though Obama recently signed a cigarette tax increase bill - this bill also involves raising taxes cigar products (each cigar tax rate from $ 0.05 up to $ 0.4), but this can not stop at the market of medium strong cigar continue forward.

    ReplyDelete
  5. 2011 Icc World Cup Champions

    So every Indians and people from World over has witnessed the historic win of India grabbing the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 after 28 years in Mumbai on the night of April 2nd 2011. It was truly a moment to cherish as all Nike Dunk SB Mens Indians prayed for the entire team India to lift the trophy this time. After the win every Indians were ecstatic with joy and dancing and having celebrations. The party continued through the night as it was surely a moment to sent congratulatory messages to relatives, friends and your near and dear ones. Even Indians were busy buying gifts and sending them across India to the well wishers and cricket lovers across the entire nation.

    The Saturday night will be Nike Zoom Hyperev remembered for many years as history has been created by team India scaling past the other strong contender for the World Cup, Sri Lanka. But India just outplayed Sri Lanka on that day to win the trophy. It was Sri lanka team which posted a total of 274 on that day and Cortez Yoth India needed 275 to win. Nike Air Jordan Mens India chased the big score to win the World Cup easily. Powerful batting from giants like Gautam Gambhir and the captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni Womens Air Jordan 6 took India to the winning position. It was crackling innings from the captain which snatched the victory from Sri Lankas lap.

    The environment was electrifying at the Wankhede Stadium on that day and people erupted with joy once the winning knock was scored by Dhoni. Even the last knock was also awesome as Dhoni powered the ball to six and seal the trophy. People from every corner of India Air Jordan Mens Sandals Shoes jumped to joy as Dhoni scored the winning runs and started celebrating. Moments after the win people came Nike Shox Turbo 13 on to streets to celebrate and wish each other as India became World Cup Champions. The previous cup was lifted by India 28 years back against West Indies under the captaincy of the legend Kapil Dev.

    This is just equivalent of celebrating a festival and people were in mood to have Nike Zoom KD V party and exchanging gifts across India. In India cricket is the passion and people here just love to be a part of it. They love to watch their favorite stars like Sachin and Dhoni outplay the opponents in every department. And Nike Dunk Mid Mens Shoes their dreams were fulfilled when India won the coveted trophy. Even players from the winning team Designer Shoes celebrated and congratulated wach other. It made all Indians proud. Prague based mixing engineer, Scott Horton, has mixed records for a myriad of established and emerging groups in nearly all musical styles. The use . Ltd. is the largest and popular firm in the real estate residential and commercial property in NCR. Today, the demand of people for purchase/sale the residential properties are increasing day by day.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Obama's trip to Asia a complete schedule

    Obama Asia trip has finally surfaced. US local time on the 9th Asian tour Obama announced the complete schedule on Friday, November 13: Japan Tokyo

    after Obama arrived in Tokyo, Japan's new prime minister will Yukio Hatoyama held bilateral talks in the evening Nike Free Run LunarGlide Homme at 7 o'clock, there is a joint reporters after the conference. According to reports, Obama also hope and Yukio Hatoyama can build personal relationships. US National Security Council senior director for East Asian affairs Budd said: 'This government (government Dove Mountain) between the United States are seeking a more equal relationship, we are ready to move in this direction of development.' However, the US Embassy Okinawa, the United States does not expect to achieve any breakthrough in the talks on Saturday, November 14: Japan Tokyo

    10:00, Obama will speak at Suntory Hall, he explained, 'his eyes US role in Asia.' Then he will meet Japanese Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko. Obama will leave Japan to Singapore on Sunday evening, November 15: Singapore

    First, Obama will hold bilateral talks with Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, and then together Burberry Trench Coats to participate in the APEC Leaders Summit. 14:00 Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev will hold bilateral talks. Then late afternoon, Obama will also work with Burberry Coats Burberry Shoes the leaders of 10 ASEAN countries for multilateral talks. This will be the first Burberry Womens Wear time the leaders of the United States and Burma to sit in a conference room. Bard said before exclusion policies that hinder Myanmar's cooperation with ASEAN in the United States. Obama and Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono will also hold bilateral talks. Obama will be the evening left Singapore to Shanghai on Monday, November 16: Nike Free Run 3.0 Homme China Shanghai, Beijing

    morning, Obama's first meeting with Shanghai Mayor Han Zheng, and youth dialogue then. After that, Obama will fly to Beijing, with Chinese President Hu Jintao for dinner. Bard said Sino-US relations smooth transition, had a good start. According to reports, the focus Nike Air Max 1 Homme of bilateral talks that the North Korean issue, the Iranian nuclear issue, climate change issues, he also said the United States can expect to show some results in clean energy Tuesday, November 17: Beijing China

    day morning, Obama will hold a bilateral meeting with Chinese President Hu Jintao, have a joint reporters Nike Site Officiel after the conference. Obama will visit some of the popular attractions in Beijing on Wednesday, November 18: Beijing China

    Obama will meet with Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and continue sightseeing in Beijing. That night, Obama will leave Beijing and fly Designer Burberry Outlet to the South Korean capital of Seoul on Thursday, November 19: South Korea Seoul

    day morning, Obama will hold bilateral talks Nike Free Run Run 2 Homme with South Korean President Lee Myung-bak, have a joint reporters after the conference. In the evening before returning home, he will visit US troops.

    ReplyDelete
  7. They contain a great assortment of chemicals that can cause serious illness Nike Air Max 2014 Kids or death. So why risk buying thse products when you can make them yourself?

    It's not very difficult to do and will help prevent any chemicals from entering the Nike Air Max 90 Hyperfuse Womens water system. Good luck and enjoy!

    Please enable JavaScript to watch this video.

    Michelle Kaufman shows us how to make a beautiful and eco friendly fireplace for your deck or yard.

    For more eco friendly video projects, search Nike Air Max 2010 Mens Michelle Kaufman on WonderHowTo.

    Michelle background via her YouTube Channel:

    As an architect, Michelle mission has always been to make thoughtful, sustainable design accessible to all. That why, in 2002, she founded Michelle Kaufmann Designs, an award winning full service architectural design firm that specializes in eco Jordan 7 friendly, innovative, high quality design. Michelle work now extends beyond her architecture and includes the world of.

    You may not realize it, but most of the laundry detergents that are being sold in supermarkets contain chemicals that can be bad for peopel, but more importantly bad for the water supply. People have begun to realize this and are starting to make their own household items from scratch using harmless items.

    If you interested in helping out the environment, then check out this tutorial. The video shows you how to make your own eco friendly laundry detergent from scratch. So sit back, pay attention, and enjoy!.

    In this Home and Garden video tutorial you will learn how to manage garden insects and pests in an eco friendly way. For plant lice or aphids, blast them with a strong blast of water. That will dislodge them and they won't climb back. You can also put some soap water in a yellow jar, they will get attracted to it, drown and die. Lady bugs are good insects that will eat the aphids. For mosquitoes, put the mosquito larva killing flakes into the water and that will take care of the mosquitoes. For slugs, take some beer in a straight sided shallow container and put it in the ground. The fermenting.

    Michelle Kaufman shows us how to make a mud mat out of eco friendly corks.

    For more eco friendly video projects, search Michelle Kaufman Nike Air Max 2015 Couple on WonderHowTo.

    Michelle background via her YouTube Channel:

    As an architect, Michelle mission has always been to make thoughtful, sustainable design accessible to all. That why, in 2002, she founded Michelle Kaufmann Designs, an award winning full service architectural design firm that specializes in eco friendly, innovative, high quality design. Michelle work now extends beyond her architecture and includes the world of everyday green living.

    Michelle Kaufman shows us how to make a totally unique cutting board out of eco friendly reclaimed wood.

    For more eco friendly video projects, search Michelle Kaufman on WonderHowTo.

    Michelle background via her YouTube Channel:

    As an architect, Michelle Air?Max mission has always been to make thoughtful, sustainable design accessible to all. That why, in 2002, she founded Michelle Kaufmann Designs, an award winning full service architectural design firm that specializes in eco friendly, innovative, high quality design. Michelle work now extends beyond her architecture and includes the world.

    ReplyDelete